THE SECOND ECUMENICAL COUNCIL
Held in Constantinople in 381. Under Emperor Theodosius the Great. 150
Bishops were present.
The Macedonian Controversy
Macedonius, somewhat like Arius, was misinterpreting Church's
teaching on the Holy Spirit. He taught that the Holy Spirit was not a
person ("hypostasis"), but simply a power (dynamic") of
God. Therefore the Spirit was inferior to the Father and the Son. The
Council condemned Macedonius' teaching and defined the doctrine of the
Holy Trinity. The Council decreed that there was one God in three
persons ("hypostases"): Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
The holy fathers of the Council added five articles to the Creed.
They read as follows:
And (We believe) in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who
proceeds from the Father: who with the Father and the Son together is
worshipped and glorified: who spoke by the prophets. In one Holy,
Catholic, and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the
remission of sins. I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life
of the world to come. Amen.
Defenders of Orthodoxy
St. Gregory of Nazianzus, the Theologian (329-390)
He was a scholar who studied in Athens with St. Basil the Great; became
Patriarch of Constantinople (379); presided at the Second Ecumenical
Council; a poet and profound thinker. He wrote many poems, hymns essays,
St. Gregory of Nyssa (331-396)
Younger brother of St. Basil the Great. He was a theologian who
delved deeply into the truths of the Faith.
St. John Chrysostom (345-407)
John was born and educated in Antioch (Syria). He became Patriarch
of Constantinople in 398. He is known for his eloquent and
straight-forward sermons (Chrysostomos: "the golden-mouthed");
was responsible for the revision of the Divine Liturgy. He died in